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南京楼市忙“出货”:上午刚摇号 下午就开盘

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 红木家具“水”很深 一不小心就可能“踩空” (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

建材家居市场“银十”不旺 BHI掉头回落

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

媒体非常令人讨厌,我们知道这一点,殿下,但您(以及您所代表的王室)可以用更有尊严的方式来表达您的关切。
Call Me By Your Name
n. 飞行员,领航员,引航员
他们必须发自内心地明白,通过操纵选举、打击异见或者骚扰反对派让临时权力永久化是不合法的。
Baoneng is believed to have borrowed heavily to fund its share purchases in Vanke and is now the developer’s largest single shareholder with a 25 per cent stake.
每个人都喜欢饼干,但是买一个智能烤箱似乎可以多烤一点。这个烤箱承诺在短短10分钟内就烤好饼干,但不考虑时间的因素,使用老式的烤箱似乎更容易做更多饼干。
5.《出租车司机》

adj. 突出的,显著的,未支付的
He was responsible for monitoring how many cupcake aficionados were allowed in the store at one time. Of course Magnolia Bakery isn't exactly complaining. The store proudly displays memorabilia from the show on the walls of their many locations. Today, Magnolia Bakery is known for their banana pudding, but they will always owe their initial success to Carrie Bradshaw and a red velvet cupcake.
荷兰合作银行(Rabobank)大宗农产品市场主管斯特凡.沃热尔(Stefan Vogel)表示,中国是推动农产品市场的最引人注目的变数。
The most encouraging news may be that 88% of the 4,000 executives in a new survey by staffing firm Robert Half International expect business to pick up in the coming 12 months.
7.You Haven't Gotten a Raise in the Last Two Years

Footnotes

  • 国务院派出8个督查组专项督查 水泥玻璃行业淘汰落后产能
  • This year, China will further enhance international cooperation in fighting corruption, said a statement adopted at the second plenary session of the 19th CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

According to government sources, property sales in Hong Kong fell almost 40 per cent in the first half of the year compared with the same period in 2015 — both in terms of price and volume. An index from the Rating and Valuation Department released this month showed the commercial sector was a particular casualty, with prices falling 5.7 per cent in May compared with the same month last year.
"What China is lacking is not legislation but strict enforcement."
fMyMcOap+fQw~Mwi)uNa
vt. 编预算,为 ... 做预算
国家统计局高级统计师绳国庆将这一下滑主要归因于食品价格下降了1.4%,这是15年来的首次下降。
Obama scored narrow wins in Ohio, Wisconsin, Iowa, Pennsylvania and New Hampshire - all states that Romney had contested - while the only swing state captured by Romney was North Carolina, according to network projections。

消费者需警惕 别被“无甲醛”地板忽悠

References

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